Transportation: Introduced regularly as part of the penal system in the early eighteenth century, with convicts going to the American colonies. This ended in 1775 with the American Revolution but commenced again in 1787 with convicts being sent to Australia. In 1840 transportation to New South Wales was discontinued but continued to Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania)until 1853: in 1849 transportation started to Western Australia. The 1853 Penal Servitude Act retained only long-term transportation and the 1857 Penal Servitude Act abolished the sentence of transportation. However many prisoners were still transported up until 1867 see Penal Servitude above.
Treason: Betrayal of the allegiance that a person owes his sovereign or his country especially by attempting to overthrow the government.